•      设为首页     联系我们
  • 学诚会长在加拿大多伦多大学专题讲座发言

     

     

      编者按:加拿大时间2017年6月17日,由中国佛教协会、加拿大佛教会、美国佛教联合会共同主办,多伦多湛山精舍承办、多伦多大学协办的中加美佛教论坛,在加拿大多伦多大学隆重开幕。论坛主题为“圆融中道,持久和平”,来自中、加、美三国的佛教界高僧大德、著名佛教学者及加拿大联邦、安大略省、多伦多市有关政要、有关社团、各界嘉宾和多伦多大学部分师生、佛教护法居士数百人出席开幕式。开幕式后,中国佛教协会会长学诚法师在多伦多大学作题为《中国佛教现状》The Current State of Chinese Buddhism的专题讲座,现场气氛热烈、座无虚席。以下为学诚会长专题讲座发言全文:

     

      中国佛教现状

      The Current State of Chinese Buddhism

      中国佛教协会会长 学诚

      VenerableMaster Xuecheng, President of the Buddhist Association of China

      一、历史的佛教与当代的佛教

      One:Chinese Buddhism: Past and Present

      今天,我想和在座的各位分享中国佛教在21世纪以来的发展现状和探索成果,希望有助于更多人了解到一个真实、全面而富有活力的中国佛教。

      Today, I’d like to share with everyone present here the current situation and achievements about the development and exploration of Chinese Buddhism since the beginning of the 21st century. I hope to help more people have a true and full understanding of vigorous Chinese Buddhism.

      首先,我想把21世纪的中国佛教放置于更深远的历史时空中,因为我们现在所看到的中国佛教现状,实际上是中国佛教漫长历史进程中的一个阶段,它来自于过去,预示着未来,并非一个孤立的片段。对于不是很了解中国佛教的人来说,很容易用两种眼光看待当代中国佛教:一是停留于对中国古代社会的印象和认知,而将中国佛教看作一种古老的、甚至脱离现实的存在;二是完全站在现代时空因缘下、以实用角度看待中国佛教,忽视其穿越两千年的深厚历史底蕴和博大精深的理论实践体系。这两种视角的片面和局限性,往往导致对中国佛教的两种误解:一是将佛教抽离于时代,认为佛教是落后的乃至反现代的;二是将佛教抽离于历史,使之肤浅化、世俗化。

      First of all, I want to put the 21st-Century Chinese Buddhism in a broader historical time and space, because its present situation is actually a part of the long progress. It comes from the past and lays a foundation for the future, rather than acts asan isolated fragment.

      To those who are not very familiar with Chinese Buddhism, they tend to treat contemporary Chinese Buddhism with two views.First, some remain in the impression and perception of ancient Chinese society and look on Chinese Buddhism as a kind of old and even obsolete existence; second, some others focus completely on the conditions in modern time and space, and treat Chinese Buddhism from a practical point of view, but they ignore its deep historical roots and profound systems of theory and practice. Bothof theseperspectives are partial and limited, and might cause two misconceptions of Chinese Buddhism.First, they separate Buddhism from its times, holding that it is an outdated and even anti-modern religion; second, they separate Buddhism from its history, making it superficial and secularized.

      事实上,我们今天所谈论的中国佛教,既是历史的,又是现代的。

      As a matter of fact, Chinese Buddhism we are talking about today is both historical and modern.

      从公元1世纪佛教自印度传入中国,经过约600年的不断本土化,在唐代形成了汉传佛教的典型模式:以天台、华严、禅宗等八大宗派为代表的教义理论和修证方法,以丛林制度为代表的僧团组织制度,以寺院为载体的弘法方式,以农禅生活为代表的社会生存形态。实现了彻底本土化后的中国佛教,在此后一千多年的历史中,不仅成为中国文化的重要思想源泉,而且发挥着传统儒道文化所欠缺的社会功能:对超越世界与世俗世界的圆融平衡。因此,将生命终极意义与世俗生活融为一体的大乘佛法,赢得了上自帝王、士大夫精英阶层下至民间的普遍认可和信仰,成为中国社会各阶层的重要精神支撑。

      Sinceits transmission into China in the first century, with about 600 years of localization, Buddhism had reached a state in the Tang Dynasty thattypified so-called “Han Chinese Buddhism.“, This state includedBuddhist doctrines and ways of practice and realization represented by the eight sects such as Tiantai, Huayan, and Chan; the organizational system of the Sanghacharacterized by monastic codes; the dissemination of Buddhism based on Buddhist monasteries; the socialized living state founded on farmwork and Buddhist practice.

      After thelocalization was completed, for more than 1,000 years Chinese Buddhism has not only become an important source of thought in Chinese culture, but also engaged in social functions that traditional Confucian and Daoist cultures lack: keeping unity and balance between the transcendental world and the secular world. As a result, Mahayana Buddhism, which integrates the ultimate meaning of life and the mundane life, won universal recognition and belief from emperors, scholars and officials in the elite class, and ordinary people, and it became a vital spiritual support to all levels of Chinese society.

      但是到了19世纪末,曾经与古代中国社会及中国主流思想文化高度融合、和谐共生的佛教,却遭遇到“千年未有之变局”。近代中国在西方现代文明的强势冲击下,不得不开始了它从社会制度到思想文化、生活方式等全方位的现代化进程。这种以科技工业文明为目标模式的现代化,导致了对农业文明背景下形成的中国传统文化的全面质疑和批判,佛教的价值同样遭到贬斥。在生死存亡之秋,中国佛教和中国社会一样面临着对自身现代转型之路的探索和选择。此时涌现出以太虚大师为代表的佛教改革先行者,提出了教理、教制、教产三大革命的口号。虽然太虚大师佛教革命的理想未能真正实现,但中国佛教的现代化序幕就此正式开启。

      However, by the end of the 19th century, Buddhism, which had once highly integrated and harmoniously coexisted with ancient Chinese society and mainstream Chinese thought and culture, encountered “upheavals unprecedented in the past millennia.” Under the strong impact of Western modern civilization, China had to start a comprehensive process of modernization, which involved the social system, thought, culture, ways of life, etc. This modernization aimed at the mode of industrial civilization based on science and technology, which causeda widespreaddoubt and criticism of the traditional Chinese culture that was rooted in agricultural civilization. Buddhist values were also despised and rejected.

      At that critical moment of life and death, Chinese Buddhism, like Chinese society, was faced with the exploration and choice of transformation into modernity. At that time, some pioneers of Buddhist reform sprang up, among whom one of the outstanding representatives was VeneratedMaster Taixu who put forward three revolutionary watchwords: Buddhist doctrines, Buddhist rules, and Buddhist possessions. Although his revolutionary ideals were not fully realized, the modernization of Chinese Buddhism formally started from then on.

      1949年新中国成立以来的中国佛教,一直在做着与社会主义社会相适应的努力。进入21世纪,当全球化成为世界发展的主流大势,中国佛教的现代化命题已然置身于东西方文化大交融的世界格局之中。这是一个不同文化、不同价值观彼此频繁互动、深入互渗的时代,也是新的现代文明理念及文明模式重新建构的历史契机。中国佛教的现代转型拥有了前所未有的自我定位的主动性、创造性和开放性。由此,21世纪的中国佛教所致力的现代化,既是对现实的适应,更是一种超越和创新,它在适应现代社会和现代文化的同时,必须以全新的方式激活洞察和觉悟世间的超越向度,而非混同世俗,成为现代精英文化或大众文化的一部分。也就是说,当代佛教不应该仅仅是被现代文明塑造的佛教,而应当成为重塑和引领现代文明的积极文化力量。中国佛教有责任和意愿来承担这一使命。

      Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, Buddhism has been endeavoring to fit into the socialist society. In the 21st century, globalization becomes the primary trend of world development, so the proposition of the modernization of Chinese Buddhism is in a situation of grand integration between Eastern and Western cultures in the world. This is an era when different cultures and values frequently interact and interpenetrate with each other, and a moment when new concepts and modes of modern civilization reconstruct history. Modern transformation of Chinese Buddhism is characterized by initiative, creativity, and openness that are unprecedented in their self-orientating effect.

      Therefore, that Chinese Buddhism devotes itself to modernization in the 21st century is not only an adaptation to reality, but a kind of transcendence and innovation. When it is adapting to modern society and culture, it must activate the transcendental dimension of insight into and enlightenment for the world in a brand-new way, rather than confuse itself with worldly matters and become a part of modern elite culture or popular culture. In other words, contemporary Buddhism should not merely be molded by modern civilization, but should play the role of an active cultural force to remold and lead modern civilization. Chinese Buddhism is willing to take the responsibility to shoulder that mission.

      为此,中国佛教在21世纪的过去十几年中,从各方面付诸探索实践,希望为中国社会安定、文化复兴、世界和平及人类文明的光明前景做出应有的努力和贡献。

      For this reason, in the past dozen years of the 21st century, Chinese Buddhism was committed to exploring and practicing in all aspects, in the hope of making due efforts and contributions to social stability, cultural revival, world peace, and the bright future of human civilization.

      下面,我就此做一些简要的介绍。

      Now, I am going to make a brief introduction to these aspects.

      二、当代中国佛教的自身建设

      Two: Construction of the Contemporary Chinese Buddhist Conception

      (一) 思想建设

      I.Philosophical Development

      中国佛教现代转型所要面临的最大问题是:怎样将佛教古老的教义和传统与现代社会、现代文化融合?并将佛教的智慧精髓重新转化为启发、引领现代社会发展的时代先进文化?面对这一问题,佛教教义的现代诠释就显得至关重要。因此,当代中国佛教的思想建设,集中体现于佛教基本教义的现代诠释。

      The biggest problem confronted by the transformation of modern Chinese Buddhism is how to combine ancient Buddhist teachings and traditions with modern society and culture, and how to once again transform the essence of Buddhist knowledge so as to inform and lead the development of modern society's current advanced culture. Confronted with this problem, modern interpretations of Buddhist teachings seem extremely important. Therefore, the development of modern Chinese Buddhist philosophy focuses on modern interpretations of fundamental Buddhist teachings.

      1、核心思想理念的提出

      (1)Suggestion of Central Concepts

      针对现代社会、全球化语境来重新提炼、阐释佛教的核心精神,是佛教思想建设的灵魂。

      The spirit of constructing Buddhist thought is to once again refine and explain Buddhism’s message and core essence given the new context of globalization and modern society.

      (1)“人间佛教”思想

      (a) The Ideology of "Humanistic Buddhism"

      “人间佛教”思想,自1980年代以来,被确认为中国佛教发展的基本指导思想。对于不太了解中国佛教和社会历史的人来说,这个概念也许显得有些费解。事实上,最初提出“人间佛教”理念的是近代佛教改革者太虚大师(1890-1947)。他提出这个理念的背景是,在科学、理性至上的世俗化的现代文化冲击下,佛教的出世精神与超越向度对于现实人生的意义遭到严重质疑,以至于牵累到佛教存在的合法性问题。太虚大师提出“人间佛教”理念,正是为了彰显佛教对现实人生的价值和意义,从而赢得佛教存在的合法性。因此,这一概念的提出,是将佛教教义与现代文化进行融合的权巧创造。在当时的时代背景下,它更强调佛教与现代社会和文化的契合性,但也并未消减大乘佛教的终极性和超越性。当代中国佛教进一步赋予“人间佛教”概念以时代内涵,将人间佛教的次第性与终极性、社会责任与超越价值有机结合,为佛教顺利融入社会、积极化导时代、主动准确自我定位,建立了恰当的理论出发点。

      The "Humanistic Buddhism" ideology has been confirmed as the fundamental guiding notion of Chinese Buddhism since the 1980s. For people who do not have a deep understanding of Chinese Buddhism and social history, this concept might bepuzzling. In truth, the first person to suggest the concept of "Humanistic Buddhism" is the modern era Buddhist reformer, venerated master Taixu (1890-1947.)

      Because of the impact of modern culture, which placed scientific knowledge and rationality above everything else, Buddhism's notions that secular withdrawal and transcendence are the true meaning of life became subject to severe doubt. The legitimacy of Buddhism itself was brought into question. Given this background, venerated master Taixu proposed the concept of "Humanistic Buddhism" precisely to display the value and significance of Buddhism throughout our actual life. From this he proved the legitimacy of Buddhism's existence. Consequently, by proposing this idea he created a mixture of Buddhist teachings and modern culture.

      During that period in time, Humanistic Buddhism emphasized Buddhism’s compatibility with modern society and culture, but in no way diminished Mahayana Buddhism's ultimate objective nor transcendent spirit. Contemporary Chinese Buddhism has taken this a step further and considers "Humanistic Buddhism" an essential concept of the age. It has organically combined Humanistic Buddhism's sequential order, ultimate objective, societal responsibilities, and value of transcendence together. Buddhism has smoothly merged into society through positively guiding the era forward, and helping each of us to understand our own self-worth. It has thus provided society with an appropriate theoretical starting point for growth.

      (2)“心文化”思想

      (b)The Concept of "Mental Culture"

      如果说“人间佛教”思想标志着中国佛教的社会化姿态,那么,“心文化”思想则标志着中国佛教的全球化姿态。

      If one says that "Humanistic Buddhist" thought symbolizes the socialization of Chinese Buddhism, then the concept of "Mental Culture" represents Chinese Buddhism's globalized stance.

      当现代文明发展到全球化时代,其文明模式及理念的优势越来越被遍及全球的世界性危机所挑战和解构,这就是所谓的现代性危机。在现代文化难以解决自身产生的现代性危机之时,佛教的内在超越价值反而获得了重焕异彩的契机。中国佛教对现代文明进行深刻反思,针对“物文化”的弊端而提出佛教“心文化”的化解之道,并通过世界佛教论坛、中韩日三国友好会议和各类国际宗教和平会议等多种途径,不断发出佛教的声音,积极回应现代科技文明引发的社会问题。

      As modern civilization has evolved into the age of globalization, the modes and concepts of modern civilization have been challenged and deconstructed by the international crisis of globalization. This constitutes the "modernity crisis." When modern culture had difficulty solving its self-inflicting crisis of modernity, the value of Buddhism's notions of inner transcendence was given an extraordinary opportunity to shine. Chinese Buddhism engaged in a profound reflection over modern culture and discovered Buddhism's "mental culture" provides a path to alleviate problems derived from the corrupt "material culture."

      Moreover, it is able to utilize the International Buddhism Forum, the friendly exchanges of China, Korea, and Japan, as well as all manner of international religious peace conferences as channels through which to constantly send out the voice of Buddhism and positively respond to modern societal problems that have arisen in this age of science and technology.

      (3)和平和谐思想

      (c) Notions of Peace and Harmony

      在快速变化的全球化时代,不同群体、不同文化、不同价值观在对立与融合的双重趋势中共存,因此对话交流、和平和谐就显得异常重要。当代中国佛教深入挖掘和弘扬佛教“缘起、因果、平等、慈悲、中道、圆融”等有利于社会和谐、世界和平的思想观念。从“一带一路”的文明互鉴愿景到世界宗教对话,佛教的和平和谐思想不断为时代贡献着智慧资源。

      During the rapidly changing age of globalization, different groups, cultures, and value systems have a tendency to mutually oppose and mix with one-another. Thus, communication and harmony appear to be of extreme importance. Contemporary Chinese Buddhism has elected and promoted Buddhism's theoretical concepts of "dependent origination, karma, equality, compassion, the middle way, and consummate integration" as means of strengthening societal harmony and world peace. From the "Belt and Road Initiative" vision of cooperation between global civilizations, to discussion between world religions, Buddhism's notions of peace and harmony have constantly provided these times with a source of wisdom.

      2、经典诠释与佛学研究

      (2) Interpretation of Scripture and Buddhist Research

      整理诠释佛教经典、进行佛学研究,是佛教思想建设的根基。在中国古代,经典诠释与佛学研究被统称为“义学”。两晋南北朝至唐代的六七百年间,中国佛教的义学研究异彩纷呈、硕果累累,创造了汉传佛教八大宗派的思想高峰。明清以后义学不振,中国佛教也随之走向衰落。可以说,汉传佛教的活力与生命力,正是在对佛教义学的创造性阐释中获得的。因此今后和未来,中国佛教的活力与生命,也要在经典阐释和义学研究中得以延续和壮大。

      The combination of clarifying interpretations of Buddhist scripture and the research of Buddhist doctrine constitutes the foundation of Buddhist thought.

      During ancient times in China, interpretation of scripture and research of Buddhist doctrine was collectively known as "yixue." From the Jin Dynasties, to the Northern and Southern Dynasties, and all through seven hundred years of the Tang Dynasty, Chinese Buddhism yixue research was particularly brilliant and fertile, creating the ideological peak of the Eight Major Buddhist Schools of China. After the Ming and Qing dynasties, yixue lacked its former splendor and Chinese Buddhism subsequently declined. It can be said that the vitality and vigor of Chinese Buddhism is obtained by the creative interpretations of Buddhist yixue. Consequently, in the future, Chinese Buddhism's vigor can be extended and strengthened via interpretation of scripture and yixue research.

      汉传佛教大藏经,是印度佛教与中国佛教的教理教义总集,也是古印度与中国思想文化的精粹,整理研究大藏经,不仅是对佛教思想理论的全面把握,也是对东方文化精华的继承与创新。十几年来,一些寺院和机构逐步开展了大藏经的整理、校勘和研究工作,并取得了阶段性成果。未来,中国佛教界将展开汉传佛教大藏经的多语种翻译和比较研究工作,希望将这一东方文化瑰宝展现给世界。

      The Chinese Buddhist Tripitaka is an anthology of Indian and Chinese Buddhist teachings. It provides succinct representations of both ancient Indian and Chinese culture. A systematic study of the Tripitaka not only helps us to grasp a comprehensive understanding of Buddhist theory and notions but also demonstrates the essence of Eastern inheritance and innovation. For the past decade, a few monasteries and organizations have progressively engaged in organization, hermeneutics, and research on the Tripitaka, which hasalready achieved significant results. In the future, the Chinese Buddhist world hopes to pass on the true Eastern cultural treasure of the many translations and comparative research of Chinese Buddhist scriptures and treatises to the rest of the world.

      从2008年开始,中国佛教协会每年举办“汉传佛教讲经交流会”,并组织全国巡讲,推动营造以现代语言研习、讲解、传播佛教经典的风气。2015年,讲经交流会更名为“中国佛教讲经交流会”,充分体现了中国佛教三大语系具足、两岸四地佛教一脉相承的完整面貌。

      From 2008, the Buddhist Association of China has held an annual Han Chinese BuddhismScripture Discussion Conference, organized a nationwide lecture tour, and promoted the practice of using modern language to study, explain, and pass on Buddhist scriptures. In 2015, the Scripture Discussion Conference changed its name to the Chinese BuddhismScripture Discussion Conference. That year it amply represented each of the three major language families of Chinese Buddhism, thus successfully presenting an intact appearance of Buddhism across the mainland of China, Taiwan, Macau, and Hong Kong to those present.

      中国佛教界还联合学术界开展多角度、跨学科的佛学研究,通过举办学术会议、编辑学术期刊等多种形式,推动佛学研究向更深层次、更高水平发展;并与亚洲、欧美各国进行国际佛学交流,提高了佛学研究的国际化水平。比如2016年在西安举办了“汉传佛教祖庭文化国际学术研讨会”,来自17个国家和地区的专家学者、佛教代表出席了研讨会。

      The Chinese Buddhist world has also united itself with the academic sphere and developed many angles and much interdisciplinary Buddhist research. By holding academic conferences and compiling academic periodicals it has taken on various forms to promote a more in-depth and developed study of Buddhism. It has also engaged in exchanges with Asian and European countries to advance the international level of Buddhist studies. For example, in 2016 Xi'an held a "Han Chinese Buddhism Ancestral Culture International Academic Research Conference." Scholars and specialists from 17 countries and regions participated in the event.

      中国佛教的义学研究建立于经典文献基础之上,但更注重对佛教义理内涵的挖掘阐释,以及对现实问题的回应。所以,佛学研究不应该是一种纯学术研究,乃至仅仅局限于语言学和文献学的狭小范畴。

      Chinese Buddhist yixue research is founded upon scriptures, but it is more focused upon unearthing explanations of Buddhist doctrine and content as well as providing answers to modern questions. Therefore, Buddhist Studies are not a simple academic discipline, nor is it limited to the narrow confines of linguistic or philologicalstudies.

      (二)人才建设

      II. Development of Talented Individuals

      佛教要想更好地融入社会、广泛传播,不仅需要住持佛法的僧众,同时也需要护教弘法的居士信众;不仅要有研学经论、精进修持的修行人才,还要有传播文化、公益慈善、国际弘法等多种人才。十几年来,中国佛教教育的观念在进步,模式在拓展,人才类型也更为多元。

      Buddhism wants to better integrate itself deeper into society and disseminate its teachings to a broader community. To achieve this requires lay Buddhists in addition to the monastic order to preserve and pass on teachings. Beside talented individuals who research scriptures and engage in cultivation, there is also a need for persons who can spread Buddhist culture, provide public service projects, and perform international promotion. In the decades to come, as the concept of Chinese Buddhist education evolves and its model expands, the need for individuals of a wider array of talents will grow.

      1、传统丛林的转型

      (1) The Changing Face of the Traditional Monastery

      在僧众教育方面,传统的丛林熏修模式逐渐发展出对内学修与对外弘法相结合的新型僧团。现代佛教僧团不仅坚持戒定慧三学,而且利用新媒体技术弘扬佛法及传统文化,积极参与公益慈善事业,进行国际交流,使寺庙成为一个为社会释放正能量的开放的精神文化中心。新型僧团教育融合了传统丛林与现代佛学院教育的优势,注重教界与学界的学术文化交流,并将古代的农禅生活拓展为各种弘法利生事业,在回馈社会的实践中体现真实鲜活的佛法。

      In terms of educating monastics, the traditional monastery’s model for cultivation and permeation must gradually develop a new form that integrates both internal cultivation practices with external propagation methods. The modern day monastic community will not only continue the study of precepts, concentration, and wisdom, but will also use new multi-media and technology to promote Buddhist Dharma and traditional culture, proactively engage in philanthropic undertakings, and establish international communication networks. The monastery will become an open spiritual and cultural center dedicated to spreading positive energy throughout society.

      The new monastic community will combine the advantages of the traditional monastery with a modern Buddhist education. It considers communication between religious and academic circles to be of the utmost importance, and will expand ancient agricultural Chan lifestyle projects with the intent of spreading Dharma and improving people’s lives. A true and living Dharma will be realized through this interaction and exchange with society.

      2、现代佛学院的发展

      (1) Development of Modern Buddhist Schools

      佛学院的教育则更为规范化,并开始与社会教育体系接轨。2015年在中国佛学院举行了中国佛教教育史上首批学士学位的授予,具有划时代及里程碑的意义。同时,中国佛学院已经完成教师资格认定工作,取得佛学学士、硕士、博士学位授予资格,这是佛教人才培养体制的突破性进展。目前,经中国国家宗教事务局批准正式设立的佛教院校共有38所,其中汉传30所、藏传7所、南传1所。2016年,在中国佛学院成立60周年之际,举行了佛学院新校区奠基仪式。未来的中国佛学院,会成为对整个社会和世界开放的佛教大学,中国佛教教育水平将迈上新的历史台阶。

      Buddhist school education systems are being further standardized and aligned with the societal education system. In 2015, Buddhist schools in China awarded the first batch of bachelor’s degrees in the history of Chinese Buddhism education. This is a great milestone. At that time, teachers at the Buddhist Academy of Chinahad already become certified. They are now able to grant bachelors, masters, and doctoral degrees– this training system represents a breakthrough development for fostering Buddhist talent.

      Currently, there are a total of 38 such establishments that have been officially sanctioned by China’s State Administration forReligious Affairs. 30 of these establishments teach Han Chinese Buddhism, 7 teach Tibetan Buddhism, and 1 Theravada Buddhism. In 2016, on the 60th anniversary of the establishment of the Buddhist Academy of China, a founding ceremony was held on its newcampus. The future Buddhist Academy of Chinawill become a Buddhist university open to the whole society and the rest of the world. With such actions, Chinese Buddhist education has taken a great stride forward signalling a new stage in its history.

      3、信众教育的推动

      (3) Promoting the Education of Adherents

      在信众教育方面,中国佛教投入了更多的关注和更大的力度,通过各种方式展开对居士信众的培养和正信、正行的引导。现代佛教信众教育的组织化、体系化程度日益提升,信众依托僧团和道场进行次第学修,并参与公益慈善、文化传播等佛教事业,同时借助互联网等技术,将教育体系延伸至全国各地甚至海外。

      A great deal has been done by the ChineseBuddhist communityto increase the effort and focus put into the education of lay practitioners. Many different methods have been applied to develop the training and guidance that leads home practitioners toward a true faith and proper practice. The organization and systematization of modern lay Buddhist education is improving with each day. Lay practitioners look to the monastic community and Dharma centers for guidance on sequenced cultivation and participation in public charity events and cultural dissemination projects. At the same time, the use of internet technologies has extended the scope of our education systems, allowing them to reach overseas nations as well.

      (三)教风建设、教制建设

      III. Establish a Religious Educational Culture and System

      思想的快速转化,人才的广泛凝聚,是中国佛教迈上现代转型历史台阶的两大基本动力;而教风建设和教制建设,则是保证佛教在转型之路上顺利前行的向导和准绳。

      Achieving a rapid transformation of thought and broad collection of talented individuals constitute the two forces driving forward Chinese Buddhism into a new, historic stage. Establishing teaching norms, educational system, and guiding path that guarantee this transformative journey moves along smoothly has been paramount.

      1、教风建设

      (1) Establishing Teaching Norms

      佛教的教风由与戒定慧三学相对应的律风、道风和学风三部分组成。三学与三风是内充外显的辩证关系。中国佛教坚持“以戒为师”,把戒律当作教风和制度建设的核心,加强规范传戒工作,从源头入手确保佛教教职人员的整体素质。从2002年至2015年,全国汉传佛教界共举办传戒法会132次,受戒僧众49348人,为佛教事业健康发展奠定了坚实基础。为了端正道风,中国佛教界大力开展以“教风年”为主题的和谐寺院创建活动,努力建设文化寺院,提倡“文明敬香、合理放生、建设生态寺院”。连续十年举行的汉传佛教讲经交流会及全国巡讲活动,则引领中国佛教界逐步形成读诵、研习、讲授、实践经典的良好学风。

      The Buddhist education style is organized into three sections in accordance with precepts, concentration, and wisdom. The corresponding sections are style of discipline, style of doctrine, and style of study, respectively. The dialectical relationship between the three studies and three styles is one of internal content and external application. Chinese Buddhism maintains the foundation that “the precepts are the masters.” The precepts and laws are regarded as the core around which the teaching norms and system are constructed. Further work is being conducted to standardize the process of initiating practitioners into monkhood and ensuring a degree of quality for all members of the teaching staff from the very start of the training sequence.

      Between 2002 and 2015, Chinese Buddhism organized 132 meetings nationally to initiate practitioners into the monastic community. 49348 persons were initiated in total. This subsequently established a base for the healthy progression of Buddhist undertakings. In order to improve the course of Buddhist study, the Buddhist Association of China enthusiastically launched its joint monastery founding activity with the slogan “The Year of Teaching Norms.” Great efforts were made to establish a cultural monastery that advocates “civilized incense offerings, rationally liberating animals, and ecological construction.” With ten consecutive years of Chinese Buddhist events including conferences over sutras and national lectures, we look forward to Chinese Buddhism’s gradual formation of an effective study style that involves reading and chanting, research, lecturing, and practice of scriptures and treatises.

      2、教制建设

      (1) Establishing an Educational System

      在教制建设方面,中国佛教不断提高管理的法治化、制度化水平。近年来,中国佛教协会先后制订了三大语系佛教教职人员资格认定办法和任职办法。2015年,对全国范围内的佛教教职人员逐步开展认定备案及颁证工作。2016年1月18日,藏传佛教活佛查询系统正式上线。在寺院管理方面,逐步尝试将戒律清规与现代管理制度相结合。

      Throughout its work to establish an education system, the Buddhist Association of China is continuously improving its management and standardization. In recent years, the Buddhist Association of China has formulated a system of qualifications for new and current Buddhist teachers from all of the three main language backgrounds (Chinese, Tibetan, and Pali). In 2015, work was carried out for step-by-step development of a system of files and certification for Buddhist teachers and employees nationwide. On January 18, 2016, the Tibetan Buddhist Living Buddha inquiries system was officially opened online. Moreover, with regards to monastery management, a gradual attempt to integrate religious disciplines and monastic rules into a modern management system is under way.

      中国佛教界的法治意识和维权意识在商业化浪潮的侵袭下变得日益清晰强烈。在佛教界以及社会各界人士的建议推动下,国家正在修订《宗教事务条例》,制定《民法总则》,以法律形式对商业资本的各种渗透进行遏制,明确佛教活动场所的法人地位。这些都可视作中国佛教法治建设的重大进展。

      The Chinese Buddhist domain’s awareness and engagement over rule through law and protection of rights has become progressively more clear and intense in response to the current trend of commercialization. Via promotion by Chinese Buddhism itself as well as members of other social sectors, the state is currently amending the Religious Affairs Regulations and formulating a General Principles of Civil Law document. It is applying legal restrictions to many kinds of market capital infiltration and clearly defining the status of legal persons within active Buddhist centers. This constitutes a great development in the establishment of a system of legal governance within the Chinese Buddhist domain.

      三、当代中国佛教的社会作用

      Three: The Social Effects of Contemporary Chinese Buddhism

      经过十多年的不懈努力,中国佛教将自身建设所积蓄的强大正能量,转化为服务社会、传承文化、推动世界和平的强烈责任感和积极行动力,为社会进步、文化繁荣、国家安定团结与人类和平幸福做出了新的贡献。

      After more than 10 years of unremitting efforts, Chinese Buddhism will channel the strong positive energy it has collected through self-building, into service of society, the preservation of cultural heritage, and the promotion of world peace, built on a strong sense of responsibility and active initiative. It hashasmade new contributions to social progress, cultural prosperity, national stability and unity, and human peace and happiness

      (一) 致力文化传承、创新与传播

      I. Committed to Cultural Heritage, Innovation and Communication

      在这个全球化和多元文化的时代,对本民族文化传统的传承与创新非常重要。因为只有守住传统文化之根,才能在文化大交融中站稳立场,避免价值观的混乱;也只有选择“不变随缘,随缘不变”的佛教中道,才能坚持本色、开放包容,超越文化冲突的困境。

      In this era of globalization and multiculturalism, it is very important to inherit and innovate the cultural traditions of ourpeople. Only by preserving the roots of traditional culture,will we be able to ensure a stable centerwithin the great melding of cultures, and avoid a confusion of values. Only by the Middle Way of Buddhism, of "the immutable as conditioned, and the conditioned as immutable," can we hold fast to our original state, stay open and tolerant, and rise above the dilemma of cultural conflict.

      新世纪以来的中国佛教,充分认识到让传统文化薪火相传、发扬光大的历史使命,主动担当起守护、发展、传播儒释道文化的责任,在传统文化的创造性转化和创新性发展方面,进行了丰富有益的探索。

      Chinese Buddhism in this new century has fully realized its historical mission to help traditional culture to spread gloriously, to“convey flame from ashes.” Its responsibility is to take the initiative and act as guardian, developer, disseminator of traditional Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism. In the creative transformation and innovative growth of traditional culture, awaits a wealth of beneficial exploration.

      在非物质文化遗产保护方面,中国佛教图书文物馆、金陵刻经处以及全国各地的寺庙,都更为重视佛教文物的保护、修复和文物保护制度的完善。2016年,是金陵刻经处成立150周年,中国佛教界举办了系列纪念活动及学术研讨活动。

      In the protection of intangible cultural heritage, the Museum of Buddhist Books and Cultural Heritage, the 金陵刻经处, and temples around the country, are all paying more attention to the protection and restoration of Buddhist cultural relics, as well as the perfection of protection systems for cultural relics. In 2016, the 150th anniversary of the establishment 金陵刻经处, the Chinese Buddhist community held a series of commemorative activities and academic seminars.

      在传统文化的创新和现代弘传方面,佛教界近十几年来充分运用新媒体手段和现代人喜闻乐见、易于接受的文化传播方式,如网站、博客、微博、微信、影视、动漫等,对传统文化的表现形式和载体加以改造,赋予其新的时代内涵和现代表达形式,令传统文化融入生活、复活于当下。近年来,北京龙泉寺联合人工智能专家,研发出富有佛教文化形象及意涵的“贤二机器僧”,为即将到来的人工智能时代指引出一条通往心灵觉悟的良性发展之路。

      With respect to innovation and modern spreading of traditional culture, the Buddhist community has made full use of new media over the past ten years, using broadcasting techniques that modern people enjoy and find easy to accept, such as websites, blogs, microblogging, WeChat, video, and animation. Modifying the form and medium of traditional culture, gives it new meaning for the times and modern modes of expression, so that traditional culture can infuse everyday life, and be reborn in the present moment. In recent years, Beijing’sLongquanMonasterypartnered with artificial intelligence experts, to develop the “Xian’er Robot Monk,” who is endowed with anappearance and significance richly informed by Buddhist culture. Xian’er willguide the upcoming era of artificial intelligence onto a healthy road thatleads to spiritual insight.

      佛教界还积极利用网络平台,如外文网站、多语种微博,向世界传播中国佛教及传统文化的声音。而进一步建立海外实体道场,是中国佛教推动世界文化交流的有力方式。2015年12月在荷兰建立的龙泉大悲寺,就是一个很好的开端。目前,中国佛教界在欧美、非洲等地陆续建立海外道场,举办佛教活动和中国传统节日法会,为凝聚当地华人、促进不同国家友好交流做出了有益探索。

      Buddhists also actively use the internet platforms, such as foreign language websites and multi-lingual microblogging, to spread the voices of Chinese Buddhism and traditional culture to the world. Further building overseas monasteries is a powerful way for Chinese Buddhism to promote world cultural exchanges. In December 2015, the LongquanMonastery of Great Compassionwas built in the Netherlands; this is a good start. At present, the Chinese Buddhist community in Europe, the United States, Africa and other places have established overseas religious sites, engaging in worthwhile experimentation by holding Buddhist activities and traditional Chinese festivals and Dharma assemblies, which build cohesion forlocal Chinese and promote friendly exchanges between different countries.

      (二) 投身公益慈善

      II. Philanthropic Work

      自20世纪90年代末以来,中国各地佛教界纷纷成立佛教慈善基金会、慈善功德会等公益慈善机构,踊跃开展公益慈善活动。佛教公益慈善事业的规模不断扩大、内容日益丰富、形式更加多样,已经成为全国公益慈善事业的一支重要力量。

      Since the late 1990s, Buddhism in China has set up many charitable Buddhist foundations, charity merit organizations and other public charities, and actively organized philanthropic activities. The scale of Buddhist philanthropy has been expanding, growing increasingly rich in content and form, becoming an important force in national philanthropic efforts.

      十几年来,佛教界投入公益慈善事业的财力、物力、人力数量巨大,据不完全统计,仅2007年至2012年,中国佛教界就为公益慈善事业捐赠善款约18.6亿元人民币,占全国宗教界捐款总额的62%。佛教慈善的服务领域广泛,涉及赈灾、扶贫、助学、孤儿、养老、医疗、放生、环保、心灵关怀等。服务对象不分地域、民族、信仰、身份,在2003年非典、汶川地震、玉树地震、台湾地震以及印尼海啸、尼泊尔地震等国内外重大自然灾害面前,中国佛教界无不积极伸出援手,大力组织人、财、物力救济支持。

      For more than a decade, the Buddhist community has contributed huge amounts of financial, material and human resources into charity efforts. According to partial statistics, only between 2007 and 2012, the Chinese Buddhist community contributed nearly 1.86 billion yuan in charitable donations, accounting for 62% of the entire country’s total religious contribution. Buddhist charity services span a wide range of areas, involving disaster relief, poverty alleviation, education aid, orphan assistance, retirement and medical fees, releasing captive animals into the wild, environmental protection, spiritual care and so on. In the face of major natural disasters inside and outside of China, such as SARS, the Wenchuan and Yushu earthquakes, the Taiwanese earthquake, the Indonesian tsunami, and the Nepal earthquake, the Chinese Buddhism community actively gave full support, including great amounts of human, financial and material resources.

      近年来,佛教界敏锐观察时代特点和社会需要,不断开拓契合时代的新方式,使幼者得教、老者得养、病者得愈、亡者得安。比如针对农村留守儿童的“幸福乡村图书馆”,惠及文化贫瘠人群的“启明书院”,令老人们生也安乐、终亦庄严的寺庙安养院。针对都市人群的精神苦闷、人际疏远,北京仁爱慈善基金会还开展了仁爱奉粥心栈、倾听热线等项目,让人们的爱心得到复苏。

      In recent years, the Buddhist community has keenly observed the characteristics of the times and social needs, and constantly embraced new methods to fit the times, so that young people can be schooled, older people can be taken care of, the sick can be healed, and the departed can rest in peace. For example, the "Happy Village Libraries" in service of the left-behind children in the countryside, the "Qiming College" to help people from disadvantaged educational backgrounds, and monastery nursing homes that ensure that the elderly can live out their days in peace and happiness. In view of the urban people's emotional downheartedness and social alienation, the Beijing Ren Ai Charity Foundation has engaged in projects like the “Loving Porridge Rest-stop” and a “Lending-Ear Hotline”, so that people’s loving hearts can revive.

      未来,佛教公益慈善事业要从分散化、个体化、单一化,向规模化、社会化、多样化发展,将佛教公益慈善活动常态化、深入化、持久化。同时要积极传播慈善文化,使佛教慈善理念进一步深入人心,吸引更多佛教善信和社会人士投身慈善事业,汇聚向上向善的力量,既发挥济世利人的功能,又起到化世导俗的作用。

      In the future, Buddhist philanthrophic efforts should evolve from their current state of decentralized, personal, and solitary, to become large-scale, distributed, and diverse, ensuring that Buddhist charity becomes regular, deep, and long-term activity. At the same time, the culture of charity should be spread activity, so that Buddhist philanthropic efforts enter the hearts of the people, attracting Buddhist believers and the community at large to join the work of charity. By combining energies to guide society towards the good, charity not only gives succor to the world and benefits the people, it will reform and guide the secular world.

      (三) 促进友好交流

      III. Promoting Friendly Exchange

      佛教是两岸四地人民和海外华人华侨共同的精神纽带,是连接中国与东亚、南亚、东南亚各国人民友好往来的文化桥梁,也是与世界各国佛教徒友好交流的和平使者。十多年来,中国佛教积极开展友好交流,取得了影响世界的划时代成就。

      Buddhism is the spiritual link between the people of Greater China, including Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau, as well overseas Chinese around the world. It is a cultural bridge that undergirds China's friendly exchanges with people from East Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is also a peaceful messenger of friendly exchanges with Buddhists from all over the world. For more than a decade, Chinese Buddhism has actively engaged in friendly exchanges and made epoch-making achievements that affect the world.

      1.两岸四地——同根同源

      (1) The Two Coasts and Four Lands: Same Root, Same Source

      两岸四地持续展开多方面、多层次、多形式的交流与互动,内容涉及道场建设、教理研究、弘法方式、文化交流、人才培养、学术研究、公益慈善等多方面。在两岸四地佛教界人士的密切合作下,圆满举办了多种佛教大型活动及佛门盛事。比如历次佛陀舍利的供奉大典、世界佛教论坛、纪念中国人民抗日战争暨世界反法西斯战争胜利七十周年祈祷世界和平法会等。佛教界的互动交流合作,为两岸四地民众提升对中华文化的认同感、增强中华民族的凝聚力、促进两岸和平统一发挥了积极作用。

      The Two Coasts and Four Lands – Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau – continue to carry out multi-level, multi-faceted communication and interaction, on topics as various as construction of monasteries, doctrinal research, methods of spreading the Dharma, cultural exchanges, talent building, academic research, philanthropy, among many others.

      Through close cooperation of the Buddhist community from these four areas, a variety of large-scale Buddhist activities and events have been successfully executed. E.g., the largest consecration ceremony of Relics of the Buddha, the World Buddhist Forum, the Dharma Assembly to Pray for World Peace, to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese people's war of resistance against Japan and the world's anti-fascist war. The interactive exchanges and cooperation among the Buddhist community across these four areas has played a positive role in enhancing the identity of the Chinese culture, enhancing the cohesion of the Chinese people and promoting peaceful reunification across the Taiwan Strait.

      2.中韩日——“黄金纽带”

      (2) China, Korea, and Japan: "Golden Bonds"

      自1995年以来,中韩日佛教友好交流会议已经连续举办了19次。22年来,三国会议早已成为亚洲佛教界和平友好的盛会,对维护亚洲乃至世界和平作出了积极贡献,无愧于联结三国友谊的“黄金纽带”称号。

      Since 1995, the Sino-Korea-Japan Buddhist Friendship Conference has been held 19 times. Over the past 22 years, the meeting of the three countries has become a peaceful and friendly event for the Buddhist community in Asia, and has made positive contributions to the maintenance of peace in Asia and even in the world. It is worthy of its moniker of the "golden bonds" that link the friendship between the three countries.

      3.世界佛教——同愿同行

      (3) Global Buddhism – Same Resolve, Same Path

      进入21世纪,中国佛教不仅在亚洲和平事业上继续发挥作用,也开始登上世界佛教舞台,让中国佛教和中华文化放声于世界宗教文化之林。

      In the 21st century, Chinese Buddhism not only played a role in promoting peace in Asia, but also began to step onto the world stage of Buddhism, such that the voices of Chinese Buddhism and Chinese culture might resound throughout into the forest of global religious culture.

      2006年至2015年,举办了4届世界佛教论坛。论坛主题如“和谐世界,从心开始”“同愿同行,交流互鉴”,鲜明而集中地体现出社会人心的需要、不同宗教文化交流互鉴的需要以及人类和合共生、和平发展的需要。每次论坛都有世界几十个国家、超过千余人参加,这足以证明,中国佛教的精神文化价值正在转化为促进现代文明进步、推动世界和平的积极有力因素。2014年10月,第27届“世佛联”大会也首次在中国成功举办。

      From 2006 to 2015, the World Buddhist Forum was held four times. Forum topics such as "a harmonious world begins in the mind", and "same resolve, same path: exchanging and learning from each other," distinctively and concertedly reflected the emotional needs of society’s people, the needs of different religions and cultures to exchange and learn from each other, and the need for human harmony and peaceful development. Each year, the forum hosts more than a thousand people from dozens of countries across the world, which is sufficient to prove that the spiritual and cultural values of Chinese Buddhism are evolving to drive modern civilization and progress, to promote world peace. In October 2014, the 27th General Conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists was also successfully held in China for the first time.

      十几年来,中国佛教还不断加强与各国佛教界的友好交流,积极参与国际佛教组织和宗教和平组织的活动。比如出席联合国卫塞节世界佛教大会、世界和传统宗教领袖大会、“世宗和”大会等,为世界宗教和平而不懈努力。

      For over a decade, Chinese Buddhism has also continuously strengthened friendly exchanges with Buddhist countries and actively participated in the activities of international Buddhist organizations and religious peace organizations. This participation includes attendance at the World Congress of Buddhism for the United Nations Day of Vesak, the Congress of Leaders of World and Traditional Religions, and the General Assembly of the World Committee on Religion and Peace, making unremitting efforts for world religious peace.

      4.“一带一路”——文化桥梁

      (4) "One Belt, One Road" – A Cultural Bridge

      古代陆上与海上丝绸之路不仅是中外贸易之路,也是佛教弘扬之路、文化交流之路、民族融合之路。中国佛教在“一带一路”建设中具有独特优势,不断发挥着文化桥梁的积极作用。未来,我们还将推动与中亚各国形成宗教文化交流对话机制,搭建“21世纪文明互鉴”高端对话平台,发起成立国际性佛教文化遗产保护联盟,促进佛教文化遗产的区域共享与联合保护。通过这些举措,加强与“一带一路”有关国家佛教界的友好交流,为亚洲及世界和平贡献力量。

      The ancient Silk Roads across land and sea were not only the route of trade between China and the outside world; they were also the roads along which Buddhism spread, the roads of cultural exchange, the roads of the blending of people. Chinese Buddhism has a unique advantage in the construction of "One Belt, One Road," for it has always played an active role in cultural bridging. In the future, we will also promote exchanges with Central Asian countries, forming a system for dialogue on religious culture, build a high-level platform for dialogue on “mutual understanding between 21st century civilizations,” initiate the establishment of an international alliance for the protection of Buddhist cultural heritage, and promote regional sharing and joint protection of this cultural heritage of Buddhism. Through these initiatives, we will strengthen the friendly exchanges between Buddhist communities from countries involved in the “One Belt, One Road” framework, and contribute energy to peace in Asia and the world.

      四、中国佛教现代转型之路的沉思与展望

      Four:Modern Transformation of Chinese Buddhism: Contemplation and Outlook

      从19世纪末至今,中国佛教的现代转型之路已经走过了一百多年的历程。只有了解其艰难漫长,才能感悟到今日中国佛教探索成果的来之不易。

      From the end of the 19th century until the present, the process of modern transformation of Chinese Buddhism has been continuing for more than one hundred years. Only by knowing the tough and long road can we understand it is no easy job to make such achievements in the exploration of Chinese Buddhism.

      正如中国社会的现代化道路一样,中国佛教的现代转型并无模式可循。只有深刻体认自身文化传统,建立文化自信,同时广泛借鉴世界文化,才能以极大的创新勇气和高度的圆融智慧,脚踏实地地走出一条属于自己的道路。

      Just as the modernization of Chinese society, there is no existing pattern for Chinese Buddhism to copy. Only by sufficiently recognizing our own cultural traditions and establishing cultural self-confidence, and by extensively learning from all other cultures in the world, can we find a way of our own with great courage to create, high wisdom forunity, and a down-to-earth attitude.

      在现代性危机笼罩全球的时代,对自身文化的自信、自觉和对世界文化的交流互鉴,有可能使我们避免文化盲从和价值迷茫,真正以对人的尊重和对灵性的珍视,来探索发现超越人类普遍危机的出路。

      In the era when the crisis of modernity shrouds the world,we should have self-confidence and self-consciousness in our own cultureand actively participate in the communication and mutual learning with all other cultures in the world, which will probably be a good way for us to avoid cultural blindness and value confusion, truly respect humans and cherish our spirituality, and find a way out of the widespread human crisis.

      两千年来的中国佛教命运,与中国社会和文化的沉浮往往一致,这种一致性赋予中国佛教“舍我其谁”的社会责任与文化使命担当意识。在人类命运日益成为一个共同体的全球化时代,中国佛教也愿意为世界文化的重建和人类新文明的孕育而主动担当,希望以佛教的圆融中道智慧和无我平等慈悲,助力人类明心见性、和合共生,将未来的世界建设成大同世界、人间净土!

      The destiny of Chinese Buddhism in the past two thousand years often corresponded with the vicissitudes of Chinese society and culture. Such correspondence bestows Chinese Buddhism with the awareness of “If I can’t do it, who can?” to take up social responsibility and cultural mission. In the age of globalization, when humans have increasingly become a community of common destiny, Chinese Buddhism is willing to take the initiative to reconstruct world culture and nurture new human civilization.

      I hope with the help of Buddhist wisdom forunity,the Middle Way, and Buddhist compassion of no-self and equality, human beings can find their true self, live together peacefullyand harmoniously, and build our future into a world of universal harmony and a pure land on earth!

     
    作者:   来源: